Selected Publications

**NSF REU participant; *undergraduate student, #high school student

52) Street, Reva M., Tatyana Huseynova, Xin Xu, Prashant Chandrasekaran, Lin Han, Wan Y. Shih, Wei-Heng Shih, and Caroline L. Schauer. “Variable piezoelectricity of electrospun chitin.” Carbohydrate polymers 195 (2018): 218-224. DOI:

51) Elisa A. Mayerberger,% Olga Urbanek,% Riki M. McDaniel, Reva M. Street, Michel W. Barsoum, Caroline L. Schauer “Preparation and characterization of polymer-Ti3C2TX (MXene) composite nanofibers produced via electrospinning” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2017, 134(37), 45295.  (% indicates equal contribution) DOI:10.1002/app.4529523

50) Sumona Sarkar, Carli Morehead, Katsiaryna Prudnikova, Caroline L. Schauer, Lynn S. Penn, Michele Marcolongo “Synthesis of macromolecular mimetics of small leucine-rich proteoglycans with a poly(ethylene glycol) core and chondroitin sulfate bristles” Carbohydrate Polymers 2017, 166, 338-347. 

49) Ariana S. Levitt, Chelsea E. Knittel, Richard J. Vallett, Michael D. Koerner, Genevieve Dion, Caroline L. Schauer “Investigation of nanoyarn preparation by modified electrospinning setup” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2017, 134(19), 44813-44816.  (Cover Image)DOI:10.1002/app.44813

48) Kamini Thakur, Susheel Kalia, Balbir S. Kaith, Deepak Pathania, Amit Kumar, Chelsea E. Knittel, Caroline L. Schauer “The development of antibacterial and hydrophobic functionalities in natural fibers for fiber-reinforced composite materials” Grazia Totaro Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2016, 4(2), 1743-1752. 

47) Kamini Thakur, Susheel Kalia, Deepak Pathania, Amit Kumar, Neha Sharma, Caroline L. Schauer “Surface functionalization of lignin constituent of coconut fibers via laccase-catalyzed biografting for development of antibacterial and hydrophobic properties” Journal of Cleaner Production 2016, 113, 176-182.  DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.11.048

46) Chelsea E. Knittel, Diana S. Nicholas, Reva M. Street, Caroline L. Schauer, Genevieve Dion “Self-folding textiles through manipulation of knit stitch architecture” Fibers 2015, 3, 575-587. (invited for special issue on smart textiles) DOI:10.3390/fib3040575

45) Reena Sharma, Balbir S. Kaith, Susheel Kalia, Deepak Pathania, Amit Kumar, Neha Sharma, Reva M. Street, Caroline Schauer “Biodegradable and conducting hydrogels based on Guar gum polysaccharide for antibacterial and dye removal applications” Journal of Environmental Management 2015 162, 37-45. 

44) Laura Toth Beringer, Xin Xu, Wan Shih, Wei-Heng Shih, Raymond Habas, Caroline L. Schauer “Optimization of an electrospun PVDF-TrFe fiber sensor platform for biological applications” Sensors and Actuators A  222, 293-300 2015

43) Pamela L. Rockwell, Marjorie A. Kiechel, Jennifer S. Atchison, Laura J. Toth and Caroline L. Schauer “Various-sourced pectin and polyethylene oxide electrospun fibers” Carbohydrate Polymers 107, 110-118, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.02.026

42) Eric K. Brenner**, Jessica D. Schiffman, Laura J. Toth*, Janah C. Szewczyk, Caroline L. Schauer “Phosphate salts facilitate the electrospinning of hyaluronic acid fiber mats” Journal of Materials Science  48(22), 7805-7811, 2013. (special edition) DOI: 10.1007/s10853-013-7532-1

41) Jessica D. Schiffman, Marjorie A. Kiechel, Amalie E. Donius, Ulrike G. K. Wegst, Caroline L. Schauer “Crosslinking poly(allylamine) fibers electrospun from basic and acidic solutions” (special edition) Journal of Materials Science 48(22), 7856-7862 2013. #equal contributors  DOI: 10.1007/s10853-013-7426-2

40) Marjorie A. Kiechel and Caroline L. Schauer “Non-covalent crosslinkers for electrospun chitosan fibers” Carbohydrate Polymers  95(1), 123-133, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.02.034

39) Susheel Kalia, Kamini Thakur, Annamaria Celli, Marjorie A. Kiechel, Caroline L. Schauer “Surface Modification of Plant Fibers using Environment Friendly Methods for their application in Polymer Composites, Textile Industry and Antimicrobial Activities: A Review” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 1(3), 97-112, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2013.04.009

38) Amalie E. Donius, Marjorie S. Kiechel, Caroline L. Schauer and Ulrike G. K. Wegst, “New crosslinkers for electrospun chitosan fibre mats. Part II: Mechanical Properties.” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 10(81), 20120946, 2013. DOI10.1098/​rsif.2012.0946

37) Jennifer S. Atchison, Caroline L. Schauer “Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Pristine and Fluorescent Composite Poly (acrylic acid) Ultra-Fine fibers” Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 7(2), 50-57, 2012. (special issue FIBERS).

36) Samona Sarkar, Sarah E. Lightfoot-Vidal, Caroline L. Schauer, Edward Vresilovic, and Michele Marcolongo, “Terminal-end functionalization of chondroitin sulfate for the synthesis of biomimetic proteoglycans.” Carbohydrate Polymers, 90(1), 431–440, 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.05.062

35) Michael. E. Frohbergh, Anna. Katsman, Gregory. P. Botta, Phillip Lazarovici, Caroline. L. Schauer, Ulrike. G. K. Wegst, and Peter. I. Lelkes, “Electrospun hydroxyapatite-containing chitosan nanofibers crosslinked with genipin for bone tissue engineering.” Biomaterials, 33(36), 9167–9178, 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.09.009

34) Marjorie S. Austero, Amalie E. Donius, Ulrike G. K. Wegst, and Caroline L. Schauer, “New crosslinkers for electrospun chitosan fibre mats. Part 1 Chemical analysis.” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 9, 2551-2562, 2012DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0241

33) Eric K. Brenner**, Jessica D. Schiffman, Ebony A. Thompson*, Laura J. Toth*, and Caroline L. Schauer, “Electrospinning Hyaluronic Nanofibers from Aqueous Ammonium Solutions.” Carbohydrate Polymers87(1), 926-929, 2012DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.033

32) Jennifer S. Atchison and Caroline L. Schauer, “Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Semiconductor Nanoparticle-Polyelectrolyte Ultra-fine Fiber Composites.” Sensors, 11(11), 10372-10387, 2011. DOI: 10.3390/s111110372 (Invited for special issue on Quantum Dots)

31) Jessica D. Schiffman, Adam C. Blackford, Ulrike G. K. Wegst, and Caroline L. Schauer, “Carbon black immobilized in electrospun chitosan membranes.” Carbohydrate Polymers, 84(4), 1252-1257, 2011. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.01.013

30) Aaron R. Sakulich, Edward Anderson, Caroline L. Schauer, and Michel W. Barsoum, “Influence of Si:Al Ratio on the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of A Fine-Limestone Aggregate Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete.” Materials and Structures43(7), 1025-1035, 2010. DOI: 10.1617/s11527-009-9563-2

29) Matthew D. Cathell, Janah C. Szewczyk, and Caroline L. Schauer, “Organic Modification of the Polysaccharide Alginate.” Mini Reviews in Organic Chemistry, 7(1), 61-67, 2010. DOI: 10.2174/1570193X11007010061

28) Dominic Bruzzese, Keith J. Fahnestock, Caroline L. Schauer, Jonathan E. Spanier, Claire V. Weiss, S. Pamir Alpay, M. W. Cole, N. M. Sbrockey, and G. S. Tompa, “The optical dielectric function in monolithic BaxSr1-xTiO3 Films.”  Integrated Ferroelectrics, 111(1), 27-36, 2009. DOI: 10.1080/10584580903586646

27) Jessica D. Schiffman, Laura A. Stulga**, and Caroline L. Schauer, “Chitin and chitosan: transformations due to the electrospinning process.” Polymer Engineering and Science, 49(10), 1918-1928, 2009. DOI: 10.1002/pen.21434

26) Aaron R. Sakulich, Edward Anderson, Caroline L. Schauer, and Michel W. Barsoum, “Mechanical and microstructural characterization of an alkali-activated slag/limestone fine aggregate concrete.” Construction and Building Materials, 23(8), 2951-2957, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.02.022

25) Keith J. Fahnestock**, Mael Manesse, Holly A. McIlwee**, Caroline L. Schauer, Rabah Boukherroub, and Sabine Szunerits, “Selective detection of hexachromium by localized surface plasmon resonance measurements of gold nanoparticles-chitosan composite interfaces.” Analyst, 134(5), 881-886, 2009. DOI: 10.1039/B817140H

24) Jessica D. Schiffman and Caroline L. Schauer“Solid state characterization of α-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings.” Materials Science and Engineering C, 29(4), 1370-1374, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2008.11.006

23) Valerie E. Binetti, Jessica D. Schiffman, Oren D. Leafer, Jonathan E. Spanier, and Caroline L. Schauer, “The Natural Transparency and Piezoelectric Response of the Greta oto Butterfly Wing.” Integrative Biology, 1(4), 324-329, 2009. DOI: 10.1039/B820205B

22) Vera G. Praig, Holly A. McIlwee**, Caroline L. Schauer, Rabah Boukherroub, and Sabine Szunerits, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Gold Nanoparticle-modified Chitosan Films for Heavy-Metal Ions Sensing.” Journal of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, 9(1), 350-357, 2009. DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2009.J064

21) Michael J. Laudenslager, Jessica D. Schiffman, and Caroline L. Schauer, “Carboxymethyl Chitosan as a matrix material for platinum, gold and silver nanoparticles.” Biomacromolecules, 9(10), 2682-2685, 2008. DOI: 10.1021/bm800835e

20) Bora Garipcan, Johna Winters**, Jennifer S. Atchison, Matthew D. Cathell, Jessica D. Schiffman, Oren D. Leaffer, Steven S. Nonnenmann, Caroline L. Schauer, Erhan Pişkin, Bahram Nabet, and Jonathan E. Spanier, “Controllable formation of nanoscale patterns on TiO2 by conductive-AFM nanolithography.” Langmuir, 24(16), 8944-8949, 2008. DOI: 10.1021/la800911x

19) Holly A. McIlwee**, Caroline L. Schauer, Vera G. Praig, Rabah Boukherroub, and Sabine Szunerits, “Thin chitosan films as a platform for SPR sensing of ferric ions.” Analyst, 133(5), 673-677, 2008. DOI: 10.1039/B717736D

18) Jessica D. Schiffman and Caroline L. Schauer, “A Review: Electrospinning of Biopolymer Nanofibers and their Applications.” Polymer Reviews, 48(2), 1-36, 2008. DOI: 10.1080/15583720802022182

17) Jennifer L. Vondran, Wei Sun, and Caroline L. Schauer, “Crosslinked, Electrospun Chitosan-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanofiber Mats.” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 109(2), 968-975, 2008. DOI:  10.1002/app.28107

16) Matthew D. Cathell, Janah C. Szewczyk, Frances A. Bui*, Carrie A. Webber**, Jessica D. Wolever**, Jenny Kang#, and Caroline L. Schauer, “Structurally Colored Thiol Chitosan Thin Films as a Platform for Aqueous Heavy Metal Ion Detection.” Biomacromolecules, 9(1) 289-295, 2008. DOI: 10.1021/bm700845z

15) Jessica D. Schiffman and Caroline L. Schauer, “One-step electrospinning of cross-linked chitosan fibers.” Biomacromolecules, 8(9) 2665-2667, 2007. DOI: 10.1021/bm7006983

14) Jessica D. Schiffman and Caroline L. Schauer, “Cross-Linking Chitosan Nanofibers.” Biomacromolecules, 8(2), 594-601, 2007. DOI: 10.1021/bm060804s

13) Matthew D. Cathell and Caroline L. Schauer, “Structurally Colored Films of Ca2 Crosslinked Alginate.” Biomacromolecules, 8(1), 33-41, 2007. DOI: 10.1021/bm060433f

12) Paul T. Charles, Ellen R. Goldman, Jermain G. Rangasammy, Caroline L. Schauer, Mu-San Chen, and Chris R. Taitt, “Fabrication and Characterization of 3D hydrogel microarrays to measure antigenicity and antibody functionality for biosensor applications.” Biosensors & Bioelectrics, 20(4), 753-764, 2004. DOI10.1016/j.bios.2004.04.007

11) Caroline L. Schauer, Mu-San Chen, Ronald R. Price, Paul E. Schoen, and Frances S. Ligler, “Colored Thin Films for Specific Metal Ion Detection.” Environmental Science & Technology, 38(16), 4409-4413, 2004. DOI: 10.1021/es035047+

10) Eric R. Welsh, Caroline L. Schauer, John Santos, and Ronald R. Price, “In Situ Cross-linking of Alternating Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films.” Langmuir, 20(5), 1807-1811, 2004. DOI: 10.1021/la035798p

9) Caroline L. Schauer, Mu-San Chen, Mandy Chatterley*, Kevin Eisemann*, Eric R. Welsh, Ronald R. Price, Paul E. Schoen, and Frances S. Ligler “Color Changes in Chitosan and Poly(allyl amine) Films upon Metal Binding.” Thin Solid Films, 434(1-2), 250-257, 2003. DOI: 10.1016/S0040-6090(03)00055-5

8) Sulay D. Jhaveri, J. Matt Mauro, Harold M. Goldston, Caroline L. Schauer, Leonard M. Tender, and Scott A. Trammell, “A Reagentless Electrochemical Biosensor based on a Protein Scaffold.” Chemical Communications, 3, 338-339, 2003. DOI: 10.1039/B209452E

7) Eric R. Welsh, Caroline L. Schauer, Syed B. Qadri, and Ronald R. Price, “Chitosan Cross-linking with a Water-soluble, Blocked Diisocyanate. I. Solid State.” Biomacromolecules, 3(6), 1370-1374, 2002. DOI: 10.1021/bm025625z

6) Jonathan Issberner%, Caroline L. Schauer%, Barry A. Trimmer, and David R. Walt, “Combined imaging and chemical sensing of l-glutamate release from the foregut plexus of the Lepidopteran, Manduca sexta.” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 120(1), 1-10, 2002. %equal contributors DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0270(02)00165-6

5) Caroline L. Schauer, Frank J. Steemers, and David R. Walt, “A Cross-reactive, Class-Selective, Enzymatic Array Assay.” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123(38), 9443-9444, 2001.  DOI: 10.1021/ja010509+

4) Keith J. Albert, Nathan S. Lewis, Caroline L. Schauer, Gregory A. Sotzing, Shannon E. Stitzel, Thomas P. Vaid, and David R. Walt, “Cross-reactive Chemical Sensor Arrays.”  Chemical Reviews, 100(7), 2595-2626, 2000. DOI: 10.1021/cr980102w

3) Harm-Anton Klok, Katrina A. Jolliffe, Caroline L. Schauer, Leonard Prins, Joachim P. Spatz, Martin Möller, Peter Timmerman, and David N. Reinhoudt, “Self-assembly of Rod-like Hydrogen-bonded Nanostructures.” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121(30), 7154-7155, 1999. DOI: 10.1021/ja9905344 

2) Caroline L. Schauer, Eric Matwey*, Frank W. Fowler, and Joseph W. Lauher, “Silver Coordination and Hydrogen Bonds: A study of competing forces.” Crystal Engineering, 1(3-4), 213-223, 1998. DOI10.1016/S0025-5408(98)00220-7

1) Caroline L. Schauer, Eric Matwey*, Frank W. Fowler, Joseph W. Lauher, “Controlled Spacing of Metal Atoms via Ligand Hydrogen Bonds.” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 119(42), 10245-10246, 1997.  DOI: 10.1021/ja9719539